for this workshop

## Noncommutative inequalities

at the

American Institute of Mathematics, San Jose, California

organized by

Igor Klep, Scott McCullough, and Jurij Volcic

This workshop, sponsored by AIM and the NSF, will be devoted to equations and inequalities for functions in matrix variables. In the last two decades, positivity of matrix and operator evaluations of noncommutative polynomials, rational functions, or trace polynomials has been intensively and systematically studied using techniques from real algebraic geometry and operator theory. Several important results on sums-of-squares positivity certificates and convexity have been established. On the other hand, major breakthroughs in this topic were recently made by computational complexity, random matrix theory and quantum information theory, such as refutation of the multifaceted Connes' embedding conjecture. This workshop will bring together the most dynamic members of these communities, that have so far intersected very little at conferences. The expected outcomes include: progress on major problems already of interest across communities, such as Hilbert's 17th problem for trace polynomials; identification of further questions of mutual interest and alignment of research efforts; and the development of a collaborative research infrastructure.

- Tracial inequalities post Connes' embedding conjecture. For example, due to the latter's recent refutation, there exists a noncommutative polynomial that has nonnegative trace on all matrix contractions, but not on all operator contractions from von Neumann algebras. What is a concrete example? Are there easily identifiable large classes of polynomials that are not such examples, and prominently appear in quantum information and quantum computation?
- Advances on noncommutative rational functions, such as rational sums-of-squares certificates for positive trace polynomials, eigenvalues of noncommutative rational functions, centralizers in the free skew field.
- Progress on matrix and tracial convexity, operator systems and quantum channels.
- Applications of invariant theory and computational complexity to noncommutative functions, such as similarity problem for matrix tuples and (non)-existence of a sum-of-squares certificate on \(4\times4\) matrices.

This event will be run as an AIM-style workshop. Participants will be invited to suggest open problems and questions before the workshop begins, and these will be posted on the workshop website. These include specific problems on which there is hope of making some progress during the workshop, as well as more ambitious problems which may influence the future activity of the field. Lectures at the workshop will be focused on familiarizing the participants with the background material leading up to specific problems, and the schedule will include discussion and parallel working sessions.

Space and funding is available for a few more participants. If you would like to participate, please apply by filling out the on-line form no later than May 1, 2021. Applications are open to all, and we especially encourage women, underrepresented minorities, junior mathematicians, and researchers from primarily undergraduate institutions to apply.

Before submitting an application, please read the description of the AIM style of workshop.

For more information email *workshops@aimath.org*